In this module, you will have the opportunity to master the following competency:
· Analyze communication theories and skills for developing professional documents and oral presentations for audiences in diverse communities and disciplines.
Case study methodologies. By: Range, Lillian M., Salem Press Encyclopedia of Health, 2018
· Analyze Communication Theories and Skills for Developing Professional Documents and Oral Presentations for Audiences in Diverse Communities and Disciplines
Creating a PowerPoint for a professional presentation is a great skill to learn, as most companies use PowerPoint for all different purposes.
For this assignment you will create a PowerPoint You will find a case study or a research project in the area you studying, use the library website to find your case study. It is recommended that you find a case study in the field you are studying, but any case study is fine for this presentation.
Your presentation will need to include slides on the following areas:
· Introduction to the case
· Methods used to conduct the research
· What was found (findings)
· How it was implemented
Creativity should be evident throughout the Power Point presentation. Treat this presentation as though you were presenting to an employer, all aspects of the Power Point will be assessed.
Feel free to use the notes section in PowerPoint if you would like to make any special presentation notations of how you would present your information.
Case study methodologies
Type of psychology: Psychological methodologies
Case study methodologies examine a bounded system over time in detail, employing multiple sources of data found in that setting. The case may be a program, an event, an activity, or an individual. The researcher chooses the case and its boundary. A case can be selected because of its uniqueness or because of its typicality.
In research using case study methodology, the researcher seeks to obtain a thorough knowledge and present a clear picture of an individual, a program, or a situation. Sometimes the researcher obtains this information over a long period of time. With the goal of investigating a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context, case studies may include observations, interviews, anecdotes, vignettes, direct quotes, audiovisual materials, psychological testing, documents and reports, analysis, and naturalistic summaries. The richness of detail from these multiple sources makes case studies fascinating. In addition, the researcher typically provides key issues to illustrate the complexity of the situation. Often, the researcher ends with lessons learned or implications that might be applicable to similar cases.
Freud and Little Hans. See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia CommonsSkull diagram of Phineas Gage Author: John M. Harlow, MD () [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Case study research has advantages and disadvantages. Advantages include being well-suited for the study of certain phenomena, particularly psychological disorders. Also, case studies can provide compelling illustrations to support a theory and can inspire new therapeutic techniques or unique applications of existing techniques. Disadvantages include depending on what observers choose to include, as their choices may be biased. Also, subjectivity makes it easy to see what one expects to see, and the person or phenomenon chosen for the case study may not be representative.
Qualitative versus Quantitative Research
Case study research is considered a qualitative experimental method. The term qualitative refers to the fact that researchers collect data in face-to-face situations by interacting with selected persons in a natural setting such as a school, a home, or a community.
A related type of qualitative research method is narrative research, but significant distinctions exist. Narrative research is chronological in focus and tells the story of an individual. Case studies, in contrast, focus on an issue, with the case selected to provide insight into that issue. Therefore, the focus in case study research is not predominantly on the whole person, as in narrative research, but on the issue illustrated by the case. Also, in case study research, the analytic approach involves a detailed description of the case, the setting within its environmental and cultural context, and a presentation that may or may not be chronological.
A contrasting type of research method is quantitative. Quantitative experimental designs typically study groups of individuals and rely on objective information. Correlation designs tell the association between two variables. Randomized, controlled experimental trials have control groups and can rule out the impact of extraneous factors that might account for findings. Case studies, in contrast, typically focus on the individual, rely on anecdotal information, and have no control groups. Case studies do not provide the arrangements that permit conclusions that are as clear as those available from experimentation. However, case studies can show the impact of treatment on one or a few individuals and can lead to scientific hypotheses. In case studies, researchers do not confine themselves to asking a limited number of questions as they would in a survey or randomized, controlled experimental study. Rather, researchers try to be open to learning from the individual or situation. Both qualitative research and quantitative research have value; which one a researcher uses depends on the specific research question.
For example, a researcher interested in studying do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders may use different kinds of research designs, including correlation research, randomized experimental design research, narrative research, or case study research. An example of a correlation design would be a survey asking people how much they knew about DNR orders and how long they stayed in the hospital, to see if there is an association between length of hospitalization and knowledge of DNR orders. An example of a randomized experimental design could be a project in which the researcher randomly assigns people to one of two groups. One group would receive standard instructions about their upcoming elective surgery; the other group would receive the same standard instructions, plus additional information about DNR orders. After discharge, people in both groups might answer questions about their satisfaction with the hospital treatment. An example of narrative research could be for the experimenter to focus on one person who had experience with a DNR order, with the goal of telling this person’s story, chronologically. The DNR order might be a part of this person’s story. An example of case study research would be for the researcher to focus on one or several people who had experiences with DNR orders. The researcher would interview these people, asking specific and open-ended questions on the DNR aspects of their experience. The researcher might also, with permission, read the hospital charts and speak to hospital staff. The researcher might discern themes gleaned from reading transcripts of the interviews and other information, and develop theories or generalizations from these themes.
Modern social science case studies originated in the fields of anthropology and sociology. In the United States, case study methodology was most closely associated with the University of Chicago. In 1935, there was a public dispute between Columbia University scientists, who were championing quantitative experiments, and scientists at the University of Chicago. The outcome seemed to be in favor of Columbia University, and consequently, the use of case study methodology as a scientific research method declined. However, in the 1960s, researchers became increasingly concerned with the limitations of quantitative methods. Hence, there was a renewed interest in case studies.