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IT for business and Beyond
Chapter 1
Learning Objectives
•define what an information system is by identifying its major components;
•describe the basic history of information systems; and
•describe the basic argument behind the article “Does IT Matter?” by Nicholas Carr.
Information Systems Constantly Changing
•IS Systems change daily
•Electronic components also change constantly
–Personal computers
•Defining Information Systems
–A set of related components that collect, process, store, and distribute information to support decision making and control in an organization.
–Combine hardware, software, and networks to collect, create, and distribute data (used typically in an organization).
Components of Information Systems
•Networking Communication

The Role of Information Systems
•Based on Era
•The Main Frame Era
•The PC Revolution
•Client Server
•The Internet, World Wide Web and E-Commerce
•Web 2.0
•The Post-PC World

Information Systems and Competitive Advantage
Implementation of IS can bring a competitive advantage
•Nicholas Carr“I.T. Doesn’t Matter”
–IT is as common as electricity
–Something to be managed to reduce costs
•Read Sidebar: Walmart Uses Information Systems to BecometheWorld’s Leading Retailer
Bourgeous, D., Smith, J., Wang. S., Mortati, J. (2019). Information Systems for Business and Beyond. Retrieved from https://opentextbook.site/informationsystems2019/.

Learning Objectives
•describe information systems hardware;
•identify the primary components of a computer and the functions they perform; and
•explain the effect of the commoditization of the personal computer.
•desktop computers
•laptop computers
•mobile phones
•tablet computers
•storage devices, such as flash drives
•input devices, such as keyboards, mice, and scanners
•output devices such as printers and speakers.
Digital Devices
•Processes electronic signals into discrete values
•Binary values (1=on, 0= off)
•Each value (1 or 0) is a bit
–Eight bits = 1 byte
–1stPCs could only process 8 bits of data at once
–Today PCs can process 64-bits of data at once
•Read Sidebar: Understanding Binary
Tour of a PC
•Processing data: The CPU
•CPU = Central Processing Unit
•The brains of the device
•Read: Sidebar: Moore’s Law and Huang’s Law
–The number of integrated circuits on a chip doubles every two years
–Speeds of GPUs are increasing faster.
Hardware Components
–the main circuit board on the computer
–Other components (CPU, memory, and storage) connect into the motherboard, contain integrated components like network cards, video, etc.., contains the bus of the PC (which determines the computer’s speed)
–Working Memory (Random Access Memory)
•Hard Disk
–Used for longer term storage
•Solid State Drives
•Removable Media
Connections, Input and Output
•Network Connections-digital network
•Input and Output
–Bluetooth –a method to connect via wireless technology
•Input Devices
•Output Devices
–Display/ Monitor
Sidebar: Which Hardware Components Contribute….
•Many elements contribute to the speed of your computer
–Hardware = increase by giving electrons less distance to travel in completing a circuit
–Multi-core processors (CPUs)

Other Computing Devices
•Portable Computers
•Tablet Computers
•Integrated Computing and Internet of Things (IoT)
•Bourgeous, D., Smith, J., Wang. S., Mortati, J. (2019). Information Systems for Business and Beyond. Retrieved from https://opentextbook.site/informationsystems2019/.

IT and Organizational learning:
Chapter 1
•The book reviews from a personal perspective the explanation of IT, organizational learning, and the practical relationship between IT and organizational learning.
•Utilizes the RavellCorporation examples throughout the book

A New Approach
•Fix the Problem
•Gather Information
•Single loop and double-loop learning
•The Blueprint for Integration –day-to-day operations
•Enlisting Support
•Assessing Progress
Resistance in the Ranks and Line Management
•Resistance in the Ranks
–Political behavior can be detrimental to organizational learning effort
•Line Management to the Rescue
•Critical for success in transformational situations
•IT Begins to reflect
•Defining an Identity for IT
–Who we are and what is our purpose
•Implementing the Integration: A Move toward Trust and Reflection
–Through credibility
Key Lessons
•Defining Reflection and Learning for an Organization
•Working toward a Clear Goal
•Commitment to Quality
•Teaching Staff “Not to Know”
•Transformation of Culture
•Alignment with Administrative Departments
–Vitally important to integrate IT with various departments to increase adoption of organizational learning
•Langer, A. M. (2018). Information Technology and Organizational Learning. 3rd edition. Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. ISBN: 978-1-138-23858-9
Chapter 2
•The IT Dilemma
•What are the perceptions and realities regarding the importance of technology from organization leaders, business managers, and core operations personnel?
•The assimilation of technical people into an organization presents a special challenge in the development of true organizational learning practices.
•IT and non-IT personnel must be integrated to enhance organizational learning.
Recent Background and IT in the Organizational Context
•Recent Background
–IT seen as a kind of variable that allows the business to reinvent itself.
•IT in the Organizational Context
–The impact it bears on the organizational structure
–The role it can assume in business strategy
–The ways in which it can be evaluated
–The extent to which CEOs feel the need to manage operational knowledge to manage IT effectively

IT and Org Structure
•IT can lead to centralization of organizational control
•IT can lead to decentralization of organizational control
•IT can bear no impact on organizational control
•Organizations and IT can interact in an unpredictable manner
•IT can enable new organizational arrangements such as networked or virtual organizations

The Role of IT in Business Strategy

Grid to assess the impact of IT operations and strategy based on specific questions:

Ways of Evaluating IT and Executive Knowledge of IT
•Ways of Evaluating IT
–Cost allocations
–Statistical probabilities of returns
•Executive Knowledge and Management of IT
–Core competencies
–Review: IT A View from the Top (table 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3)
Defining the IT Dilemma
•Wide range of inconsistent practices
–Should executives use IT as part of their business strategy and operations?
–Cultural assimilations lag behind the actual involvement of IT in the strategic direction of the organization.
•Recent Developments in Operational Excellence
–Decline in financial markets and mergers = opportunity for IT that reinforces the need for integration via organizational learning.
•Langer, A. M. (2018). Information Technology and Organizational Learning. 3rd edition. Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. ISBN: 978-1-138-23858-9

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